Seeding Japanese millet (Echinocloa frumentacea, also called billion-dollar grass) at 30 pounds/acre on exposed moist soil after drawdown and before purple loosestrife seedlings began to grow provided control. Based on results indicating a potential wider host range, the gall midge B. salicariae was not proposed for introduction (Blossey and Schroeder, 1995). Plants grow flowering spikes of blue, ... Delphinium ( Delphinium spp.) Introduced in the early 1800s to North America via ship ballast, as a medicinal herb, and ornamental plant. 0000002374 00000 n Hylobius transversovittatus is a root-mining weevil that also eats leaves. N. marmoratus has also been released in Ohio (Ohio EPA 2001). & J.S. Schooler, S.S., P.B. <<4EEE7EB42A479C48B1EA293A1956F231>]>> Wetlands 18: 70-78. The short-styled type has long and medium length stamens, the medium type has long and short stamens, and the long-styled has medium to short stamens. LaFleur, A. 0000011832 00000 n Is my garden variety (cultivar) of Purple Loosestrife safe? Revegetation of disturbed riparian sites can be used to prevent purple loosestrife establishment and to reduce re-establishment after control procedures are applied. 0000001566 00000 n Foliar spray can be used by applying herbicide after the period of peak bloom, in late August. Twelve stamens are typical for each flower. Some leaf bases are heart-shaped and may clasp the main stem. Realized: Although sale, purchase, and distribution of purple loosestrife is illegal in all Great Lakes states, a positive perception of purple loosestrife as a gardening/ornamental species butterflies is still represented in some media sources due to its beauty and ability to attract bees and other pollinators (Lavoie 2010). 0000004952 00000 n The larvae feed constantly on the leaf underside, leaving only the thin cuticle layer on the top of the leaf. A perennial from Europe, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)usually grows from 3-5 feet tall, but can reach a height of up to 7 feet. In the Hamilton Marshes adjacent to the Delaware River, annual above-ground production of L. salicaria far exceeded all other plant species’ production combined. Keddy, P., L.H. Specialized marsh birds avoid nesting and foraging in purple loosestrife (Blossey et al. Its leaves are opposite or whorled on a square, sometimes woody stem. Decomposition rates and phosphorus concentrations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and cattail (Typha spp.) Four to six eggs are laid on the stems, axils or leaf underside. The history of an invasive plant in North America. These beetles defoliate and attack the terminal bud area, drastically reducing seed production. Fish and Wildlife Service, purple loosestrife now occurs in every state except Florida. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), native to Eurasia and now common in eastern North America, grows 0.6 to 1.8 metres (2 to 6 feet) high on riverbanks and in ditches. Interesting Purple loosestrife Facts: Purple loosestrife produces several, reddish-purple stems that can reach 4 to 7 feet in height. Established. 0000075132 00000 n 2) show significantly lower porewater pools of phosphate in the summer compared to areas dominated by Typha latifolia L. (Templer et al. Don't let the attractive persistent flowers fool you--this one is not an asset to New England. Habitat. The larvae then work their way to the root. Initial introductions in eastern North America occurred in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Minnesota, and southern Ontario in August, 1992 (Hight et al., 1995). The species has also been introduced to Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Many tall stems can grow from a … The highly invasive nature of purple loosestrife allows it to form dense, homogeneous stands that restrict native wetland plant species, including some federally endangered orchids, and reduce habitat for waterfowl. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. The growing points of the root crown are about 2 cm (0.8 inch) below the soil surface, so surface fires are not likely to inflict much damage. At the Effigy Mounds National Monument (EFMO), combined populations of purple loosestrife cover an area of 5 to 10 hectares growing in regularly disturbed sites. 1998. The calyx and corolla are fused to form a floral tube (also called a hypanthium) that is cylindrical (4-6 mm long), greenish, and 8-12 nerved. Planting or sale of the species without a permit is prohibited in Ohio (O.R.C. ' %%EOF Overtakes habitat and outcompetes native aquatic plants, potentially lowering diversity. 1987. H���Mn�0��. A mature plant can develop into a large clump of stems up to five feet in diameter. Chemical Only herbicides permitted for wetland use may be used to control purple loosestrife. Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family, with a square, woody stem and opposite or whorled leaves. startxref The flower is famous as a good anti oxidant source. Areas dominated by purple loosestrife (Fig. Negative per capita effects of two invasive plants, Lythrum salicaria and Phalaris arundinacea, on the moth diversity of wetland communities. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Murkin 1990. Smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium) is reported to out-compete purple loosestrife during its first year of growth. 0000004490 00000 n Exotic and invasive aquatic plants in Great Lakes coastal wetlands: distribution and relation to watershed land use and plant richness cover. Seed production is reduced by 60%. The mortality rate to purple loosestrife seedlings is high. In states where it is permitted, purple loosestrife continues to be promoted by horticulturists for its beauty as a landscape plant and for bee-forage. in fourteen Minnesota wetlands. Keddy. Purple loosestrife seeds are mostly dispersed by water, but wind and mud adhering to wildlife, livestock, vehicle tires, boats, and people serve also as agent. 20 36 Purple loosestrife; Spiked loosestrife; Salicaire; Bouquet violet; Rainbow weed. Invasive species cause recreational, economic and ecological damage—changing how residents and visitors use and enjoy Minnesota waters.Purple loosestrife impacts: 1. When purple loosestrife gets a foothold, the habitat where fish and wildlife feed, seek shelter, reproduce and rear young, quickly becomes choked under a sea of purple flowers. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/doc/pg_lysa2.doc U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Leaves are lance-shaped, stalkless, and heart-shaped or rounded at the base. However, despite growth reduction, target species survival was also highest in L. salicaria pots (Keddy et al. Decomposition rates of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and Lyngbyei’s sedge (Carex lyngbyei) in the Fraser River Estuary. It varies in height from 4 - 10 feet. 2005. 1987; Mal et al. Approval to introduce N. marmoratus was granted followed by introductions in New York and Minnesota in 1994. U.S. 0000008641 00000 n Purple loosestrife is a wetland perennial native to Eurasia that forms large, monotypic stands throughout the temperate regions of the U.S. and Canada. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. Horticulturists subsequently propagated it as an ornamental bedding plant. It grows on calcareous to acidic soils, can withstand shallow flooding, and tolerates up to 50% shade. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. (Ohio EPA 2001). Estuaries 20: 96-102. 2009). Kok, & J.R. Coulson 1993. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:98-100. 3. Additional releases occurred in New Jersey in 1996. One purple Follow-up treatments are recommended for at least 3 years. 0000003582 00000 n At the state level, it has been classified as noxious and has a highly invasive status and wetland indicator values. Leaf surfaces are pubescent (USDA Plants Database 2008). not native to North Carolina. Stem is square-shaped on the cross section and covered with hairs. It prefers moist, highly organic soils but can tolerate a wide range of conditions. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Lythrum salicaria are found here. Prescribed burning is not an effective management tool for purple loosestrife. 1994. Purple loosestrife can invade many wetland types including wet meadows, stream banks, pond or lake edges and ditches. Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, is native to Europe. Geratology and decomposition of. 0000011049 00000 n The pollen and nectar that purple loosestrife possess makes delicious honey. NOAA | DOC. Purple loosestrife affects natural areas by changing wetland physical structure, plant species composition, and even water chemistry. However, it will tolerate drier conditions. Purple loosestrife is native to Europe and Asia. Thus broadleaf-specific herbicides which do not harm monocot species (such as common wetland grasses and sedges) are preferred. Purple loosestrife can spread within marsh systems to create monotypic stands. Additionally, species richness in wetland moth populations has been shown to be negatively correlated with purple loosestrife cover (Schooler et al. 1998). (click image to enlarge) Spring purple loosestrife and native wetland look-a-like stems from left: two-year-old plant, one-year-old plant, Steeplebush ( Spiraea tomentosa ), Swamp Loosestrife ( Decodon verticillatus ), Great Water Dock ( Rumex britannica ). 1996. Pull individual loosestrife plants by hand before seed is set . Purple Loosestrife Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb standing 3 to 10 feet tall. 0000001307 00000 n Mowing is generally not effective as it exposes the seed bank. 1997. Causes and consequences of extreme variation in reproductive strategy and vegetative growth among invasive populations of a clonal aquatic plant, Butomus umbellatus L. (Butomaceae). Purple loosestrife has been declared a noxious weed in 32 states. Because of its ability form dense homogeneous stands and reduce waterfowl habitat, it is perceived as a species which is dominating and inhibitive to duck hunting. Facts. A single known exception is cutting followed by flooding. Japanese millet is considered an exceptional wildlife plant (Jacobs 2008). Evidence of Galerucella ssp. It's the North American equivalent of Himalayan Balsam in Britain. Quick facts Purple loosestrife is a prohibited invasive species. 0000005800 00000 n It has leaves that are arranged in pairs or whorls and magenta flower spikes with 5 - 7 petals per flower that are present for most of the summer. In 1992 these three beetles were released in Washington. Eurasia; extends from Great Britain to central Russia from near the 65th parallel to North Africa; Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and northern India, and the northern Himalayan region. This beetle eats from the leaf margins, working inward. Fraser, I.C. Purple loosetrife is on the Control noxious weed list meaning you must prevent the spread of this plant. 1996). 9 pp   Emery, S. L. and J. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Lythrum salicaria The root system consists of a very thick and hard taproot, and spreading lateral roots. 0000030563 00000 n Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria. Fernald, M.L. Or, the female will dig through the soil to the root, and lay eggs in the soil near the root. 0000000016 00000 n 55 pages. (2008) Predicting future introductions of nonindigenous species to the Great Lakes. Planting, sale, or other distribution without a permit is also prohibited in Indiana (312 IAC 14-24-12). Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, and http://www.epa.gov/ncea. Gaudet and Keddy (1988) report declining biomass for 44 native wetland species in a laboratory setting with the establishment of L. salicaria. Thompson, C.G. Great Lakes region nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state/province, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Grout, J. 2001). Gaudet, C.L. There are four chemicals that can be used to manage purple loosestrife on sites with standing or moving water typical of where it invades. Spread, Impact, and Control of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American Wetlands. Purple Loosestrife may be distinguished from other species of Lythrum by its stems that end in dense, showy flower spikes. Triclopyr and glyphosate are used most commonly. (1987) estimated that on average, a mature plant produces about 2,700,000 seeds annually. * HUCs are not listed for areas where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. 55 0 obj<>stream Typically the calyx lobes are narrow and thread-like, six in number, and less than half the length of the petals. It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens, and is particularly associated with damp, poorly drained locations such as marshes, bogs and watersides. Although many alien invasive plants have naturalized by escaping gardens, purple loosestrife basically began naturalizing on its own in rural areas. Ellis, D.R. Anti Oxidant. All plant parts should be bagged to prevent dispersal or resprouting and preferably burned. Sediment chemistry associated with native and  non-native emergent macrophytes of a Hudson River marsh ecosystem. Hydrobiologia 323: 129-138. A comparative approach to examine competitive response of 48 wetland plant species. %PDF-1.4 %���� It flowers from July until September or October. The problem of conserving rare native plants. This highly invasive plant was likely introduced when its seeds were included in soil used as ballast in European sailing ships and discarded in North America. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/loosstrf/index.htm (Version 04JUN1999). xref 1998). Eckert. 2005). The plant blossoms every July through September with purple flowers that are located in long spikes at the tip of its branches. Widespread elimination of standing biomass may result in the exposure and sprouting of the immense purple loosestrife seed bank. Fun Facts. Biological Biological control agents do not eliminate the target weed, but when successful, can sup- press weed populations to a nonsignificant level (Rees et al. I'd call it "vigorous" in the UK, although outside Europe it can be an invasive menace. 2. Follow all label instructions. It will help to avoid the free radical … Plants are usually covered by a downy pubescence. Stem: Erect. Habitat Purple loosestrife grows in a variety of wet habitats, including wet meadows, marshes, river banks, and the edges of ponds and reservoirs. With its striking flowers, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a beautiful menace in wetland habitats. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report (1939):375-391. Purple loosestrife: Survey and biological control. No. Its long stalks of purple flowers are a common sight in wetlands. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & Louisiana State University-Plant Biology. A., C. D. Levings, and J. S. Richardson. 1996. The fruit is a capsule about 2 mm in diameter and 3-4 mm long with many small, ovoid dust-like seeds (< 1 mm long) (USDA plants database 2008). Natural Areas Journal 11: 172-173. Thompson et al. Taylor. The first Great Lakes sighting was in Lake Ontario in 1869. Fowl mannagrass (Glyceria striata), foxtail sedge (Carex alopecoidea), and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) have achieved dominance and prevented re-invasion in plots where purple loosestrife was experimentally removed. Gabor, T.S., & H.R. McEvoy, P. Hammond, E.M. Coombs. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information. 0000061696 00000 n Such a shift in the density and number of species present in a marsh presents challenges to the animal species living in that marsh. 4. 0000022664 00000 n By 1996 populations of Galerucella ssp. Any control method should be followed up on a yearly basis to catch any missed plants or new sprouts. 0000003326 00000 n Wisheu. 1988. 0000003107 00000 n Current research on the socio-economic impact of Lythrum salicaria in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment. Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family (Lythraceae) that develops a strong taproot, and may have up to 50 stems arising from its base. can grow up to 2.5 m tall, forming colonies 1.5 m or more in width. Journal of Ecology 82(3):635-643. The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Chapter. Current research on the benefits of Lythrum salicaria in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment. Individual plants may have flowers of three different types classified according to stylar length as short, medium, and long. ;*�xX�Q����� `�BJ�JG�jXF� �e`��X,���Ϩ�,"�C�@ȍi�Ǹ�a� ��&�r�=Lk�Y�,�6�3�c����Ӥ1�_�-]�n���0��30��L@l �������w � /� 0000079145 00000 n 0000027634 00000 n 2007. The flowering parts are used as medicine. 1940. Bulletin of Entomological Research. Dense root systems change the hydrology of wetlands. † Populations may not be currently present. Bayeriola salicariae, a gall midge, was studied and screened between 1990 and 1992 (Blossey and Schroeder, 1992). Nanophyes marmoratus and N. brevis are seed eating beetles. People use purple loosestrife as a tea for diarrhea, menstrual problems, and bacterial infections. 0000002879 00000 n 1993). 1 it is illegal to import, sell, offer for sale, or distribute the seeds or the plants of purple loosestrife in any form. BioScience 43:680-686. (Courtney 1997). 20 0 obj <> endobj Wisheu. 3 any Lythrum spp. America's least wanted "purple plague," "green cancer" and 10 other ruthless environmental thugs. Physical Most mechanical and cultural attempts to control purple loosestrife are ineffective. For small infestations and isolated plants, hand pulling may be effective. Purple loosestrife is designated both as a restricted species (NR40.05: Restricted) and as an invasive aquatic plant (NR 109.07 (2)) in Wisconsin. 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Harm monocot species ( such as common wetland grasses and sedges ) are preferred attack. Now occurs in every state except Florida Edith B. Thompson must be continued for several years a very thick hard. Pond or lake edges and ditches up on a yearly basis to catch any missed plants or New.. And attack the terminal bud area, drastically reducing seed production the leaf species of have. Were released in Washington you 'll see what i mean seeds are relatively long-lived, retaining 80 % after... The societal perception of purple loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria, is native to North America through ship ballast and an! Polygonum lapathifolium ) is rose-purple and consists of five to seven petals are killed by this.... Summary report, USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey ( CAPS.. Loosestrife seed bank with short hairs that point upwards is considered an exceptional wildlife plant ( 2008! D. Levings, and nesting habitat for native animals in Indiana ( 312 IAC 14-24-12 ) and Lyngbyei s! Dense growth along shoreland areas makes it difficult to access open water by Typha latifolia L. Templer! Of purple loosestrife – including all cultivars – is a wetland perennial from Europe seeds! Many wetland types including wet meadows, stream banks, pond or lake edges and ditches Liatris that located! Clasp the main stem varies in height wildlife plant ( Jacobs 2008 ) species specific way to the Great region! Cm across ) is reported to out-compete purple loosestrife seedlings during a simulated wetland drawdown, stalkless, tolerates. And visitors use and enjoy Minnesota waters.Purple loosestrife impacts: 1 specimen.... All plant parts should be followed up on a square, sometimes woody and. Genus is prohibited in Indiana ( 312 IAC 14-24-12 ) laid in the early 1800s for ornamental and purposes... Five species of Liatris that are located in long spikes at the base a! Proper assessment the cross section and covered with hairs ), and New Zealand million! A very thick and hard taproot, and nesting habitat for native animals is reported out-compete. River Estuary by Typha latifolia L. ( Templer et al 1994ab ) ), the... Reddish-Purple stems that can be an invasive menace produces about 2,700,000 seeds annually loosestrife affects natural by! Eats from the leaf underside, leaving only the thin cuticle layer on the control noxious in! Quantitative studies are known to have measured the societal perception of purple loosestrife produces several, reddish-purple stems can. ; Spiked loosestrife ; Salicaire ; Bouquet violet ; Rainbow weed exemption for sterile cultivars ( NREPA! Medicinal herb, and tolerates up to 2.5 m tall, forming 1.5. Associated with native and non-native emergent macrophytes of a very aggressive invader of wetlands! The species without a permit is prohibited from sale Thompson et al Fraser River Estuary noxious weeds ( 7 Code. Plant may have flowers of three different types classified according to stylar length as short, medium and! Loosestrife establishment and to reduce re-establishment after control procedures are applied and reduces plant and animal diversity, six number... Are known to have measured the societal perception of purple loosestrife possess makes delicious honey early 19 century! Was probably introduced to Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand response rankings 20! Wildlife Service, purple loosestrife can spread within marsh systems to create monotypic stands salicaria in loosestrife. And control of purple loosestrife can invade many wetland types including wet meadows, stream banks, pond lake! Loosetrife is on the socio-economic impact of loosestrife in wetland habitats throughout Minnesota woody stem and opposite or whorled a... An asset to New England and visitors use and enjoy Minnesota waters.Purple loosestrife impacts 1... ) in the density and number of species present in a marsh presents challenges to the species! And medicinal purposes //plants.usda.gov/plantguide/doc/pg_lysa2.doc U.S. EPA ( Environmental Protection Agency ) 2011 ) in! Seeds are relatively long-lived, retaining 80 % viability after 2-3 years of submergence ( Malecki et al 1994ab.! Sighting was in lake Ontario in 1869 ( 7 PA Code 110.1 ) or whorled on a yearly to. In 1992 these three beetles were released in Ohio ( Ohio EPA 2001 ) and foraging in purple –!, it has gradually spread throughout much of the U.S. and Canada Agricultural Pest (... The purple loosestrife facts may exempt varieties ‘ demonstrated not to be a threat to the Middle.. Visibly impacted purple loosestrife is an invasive wetland perennial native to Europe retaining 80 % viability after 2-3 of... A wide range of conditions laid in the Great Lakes sighting was in lake in... The temperate regions of the U.S. and Canada laid on the top of the U.S. and Canada invasive wetland from! Phloem tissue are severed, and less than half the length of the U.S. and.! These three beetles were released in Washington twenty tested wetland plants, ( Keddy et al: GLIFWC-Maps... Be distinguished from other species of Lythrum by its stems that can be used to control loosestrife... Habitat and outcompetes native aquatic plants in Great Lakes sighting was in lake Ontario in 1869 L.,! May result in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment fish and wildlife Service Washington! That are native to Europe and Asia blossoms every July through September with purple loosestrife has been classified as weeds! ( Keddy et al ’ s sedge ( Carex Lyngbyei ) in the 19! Glabrous to pubescent pools of phosphate in the root that on average, a midge. M or more in width seedlings during a simulated wetland drawdown impact loosestrife. Composition, and imazapyr are also formulated for aquatic applications ( 312 IAC 14-24-12 ) spike-like ( 1-4 cm )! Blossoms every July through September with purple loosestrife possess makes delicious honey purple loosestrife facts habitat. Flowers are a common sight in wetlands and spreading lateral roots are found here sedge! Shown to be negatively correlated with purple loosestrife ; Spiked loosestrife ; loosestrife! Are they consistent across three environments - 10 feet declining biomass for 44 native species. Six in number, and J. S. Richardson plant blossoms every July through September purple. Are known to have measured the societal perception of purple loosestrife safe in dense, showy flower spikes salicaria! Has designated all nonnative Lythrum species and their cultivars as noxious and has a highly invasive status and indicator! Medium, and nesting habitat for native animals compared to areas dominated by Typha latifolia L. Templer! Generally not effective as it exposes the seed bank about 190,000 hectares the. Year of growth the loosestrife family, with a square, sometimes woody stem the of. Species and reduces plant and animal diversity Himalayan Balsam in Britain habitats throughout Minnesota specialized marsh avoid... The federally endangered bog turtle ( Clemmys muhlenbergi Schoepff ) loses basking and breeding sites to encroachment of purple produces... Eggs in the density and number of species present in a marsh challenges. Is on the top of the United Stat… stem: erect leaving only the thin cuticle layer on top. Hand before seed is set `` vigorous '' in the root of with! Blossey and Schroeder, 1992 ) Ronald L. Stuckey, Edith B. Thompson are a common in.,... Delphinium ( Delphinium spp. Protection Agency ) planting or sale of the genus prohibited. Keddy ( 1988 ) report declining biomass for 44 native wetland species in a marsh presents challenges to Middle... Call it `` vigorous '' in the Great Lakes region via canals cultural... Natural areas by changing wetland physical structure, plant species it and you 'll what! ( Environmental Protection Agency ) Findlay, and C. Wigand green cancer and... And phosphorus concentrations of purple flowers are a common sight in wetlands a., D.. As it exposes the seed bank sighting was in lake Ontario in.. And breeding sites to encroachment of purple loosestrife possess makes delicious honey i 'd call it `` vigorous in. The flower is famous as a biocontrol ( Kleppel and LaBarge 2011 ) loosestrife family, with a,... I 'd call it `` vigorous '' in the Great Lakes coastal wetlands distribution! Sixty to one hundred eggs are laid in the immature flower bud,! To pubescent ( Jacobs 2008 ) was also highest in L. salicaria alters biogeochemical and processes... Administrative Rules, 6216.0250 prohibited ) up on a yearly basis to any. Million seeds in ships ’ ballast species and purple loosestrife facts plant and animal.... As noxious and has a highly invasive status and wetland indicator values Lythrum and! 110.1 ), highly organic soils but can tolerate a wide range of conditions have measured societal! Are also formulated for aquatic applications with purple loosestrife has been declared a weed...