Conversations in History: Arrian and Herodotus, Parmenio and Alexander Arrian’s account of Parmenio’s warning to Alexander at Persepolis is meant not only to evoke Herodotus’ account of Croesus and Cyrus, but also to critique Herodotus’ notion of endless reciprocity in … Though it is likely that Philotas was innocent, Alexander had Parmenio murdered. In Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia Philotas, Parmenio’s son, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, was implicated in an alleged plot against Alexander’s life, condemned by the army, and executed; and a secret message was sent to Cleander, Parmenio’s second in command, who obediently assassinated him. Hence we find an account of a staid, unadventurous general who repeatedly gave Alexander advice which, if it wasn’t actually bad, at least went against the heroic image that Alexander wished to portray. 10). Updates? The Hellenistic Age chronicles the years 336 to 30 BCE, a period that witnessed the overlap of two of antiquity’s great civilizations, the Greek and the Roman. Callisthenes probably ‘re-wrote’ his history to defame the general after the murder, to excuse Alexander’s actions further. Omissions? Parmenio was renowned throughout Europe and Asia as a great general, and Alexander, playing to his strengths, consulted Parmenio on most of his important battles beforehand, took his advice – and then did the … Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. Alexander The Great wanted to be both human and divine, he wanted to have supreme power over other human beings that could never be questioned.. Born in 356 B.C., to the powerful King Philip II and ambitious queen, Olympias (foreigner and 7-8th wife of Philip). Corrections? A lot of articles and theories on the conspiracy of Philotas, but very little about Parmenio's family and career before Alexander. It was probably here that Parmenion heard of Philip’s death, and where Hecataeus came with Alexander’s orders to arrest and/or execute Attalus for treason. It was while Parmenion was at Ecbatana that his son Nicanor died (of natural causes) and shortly afterwards his other son, Philotas, was accused of treason and executed. .. Add an external link to your content for free. The smearing of Parmenion’s character was a cynical piece of media manipulation on the part of Alexander’s ‘press corps’. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Attalus married one of Parmenio's daughters and accompanied him when he took charge of the invasion of Asia before Philip's death. Alexander "the Great" -- son of the Macedonian king who created and trained the mighty army that Alexander inherited -- did what few, if any, mortals ever have: he subdued much of the then-known world. NOW 50% OFF! Outside the major battles Parmenion’s main role was largely to secure the supply lines and take charge of the army’s supply train. I am preparing an article about the men behind Alexander and although I have a lot of good books in my hands I stopped dead on Parmenio. In the confusion that followed Philip’s murder, he declared for Alexander and assisted in the murder of members of the faction opposed to Alexander. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Journal Help. We also hear that Parmenion got himself into dire straits at Gaugamela and that his appeal for help prevented Alexander from following up the victory more thoroughly – a very unlikely story considering the general’s track record. He was largely responsible for the planning and execution of the Macedonian invasion of Persia. Parmenion was sent by Philip to secure a bridgehead in Asia in 336BC. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! son Alexander. “…The only proof of Philotas’ guilt appears to have been his failure to arrange an audience for Cebalinus or to inform Alexander … (A third son, Hector, had died in an accident during the army’s stay in Egypt.) By the time of Philip’s death he was the foremost general in Macedonia (after Philip, of course) and he continued to be held in high regard in the same position under Alexander until his death in 330BC. Whether these accusations were true or not, the commanders slew Parmenion without any fuss and their explanation of the reasons for the murder, reading out a letter from Alexander to them, ultimately satisfied the troops at Ecbatana. During the reign of Philip, Parmenio won a great victory over the Illyrians (356). Alexander made good use of the terrain in a battle, trying to find rough ground to prevent the chariots being used at Gaugamela. During the reign of Philip Parmenio obtained a great victory over the Illyrians (356 B. Persone Hi! Keywords: Alexander the Great, Macedon, history, Parmenio, artifice, Homer, Achilles Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. (There is some debate as to whether there really was an established custom in Macedonia of slaying all a traitor’s family to prevent repercussions, as has been asserted in the past.). As soon as Philotas was dead Alexander sent Parmenion’s friend Polydamus to Ecbatana, with sealed orders to the other commanders – Cleander, Sitalces, Agathon and Menidas – to kill the general. Next page: Pausanias the Assassin, © Copyright 2004-2016 - pothos.org Parmenióne (gr. Già Filippo II aveva sperimentato le sue non comuni capacità di stratego in una vittoriosa campagna contro i Dardani (356) e poi nel primo tentativo macedone di porre il piede in Asia (336). Journal Content. Meanwhile, the Persian satraps of Cilicia, Lydia, Hellespontine Phrygia and other territories had assembled at Zelea, near Dascylium. Parmenio's death, having' been ordered by the Macedonians themselves as was that of Philotas, becomes a judicial execution. Arrian’s account of Parmenio’s warning to Alexander at Persepolis is meant not only to evoke Herodotus’ account of Croesus and Cyrus, but also to critique Herodotus’ notion of endless reciprocity in history. in southern Anatolia he defeated a much larger force under the direct command of Darius. Parmenion acceded to the order, despite the fact that Attalus was his son-in-law – or at least he did nothing to prevent Attalus from being killed. This army included a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Alex. But Philip, becoming aware of this, went to Alexander's chamber, taking with him one of Alexander's friends and companions, Philotas the son of Parmenio, [3] and upbraided his son severely, and bitterly reviled him as ignoble and unworthy of his high estate, in that he desired to become the son-in-law of a man who was a Carian and a slave to a barbarian king. Parmenio was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II and he was the chief general and advisor to Alexander the Great. While Alexander went gallivanting along the coast of Asia Minor the old general took the baggage train and the rest of the army onto the Anatolian Plateau to secure the hinterland until Alexander came to meet him at Gordium. “…Alexander was suspicious of plots and ruthless in dealing with them.”-Hamilton. duced above, between Alexander and Parmenio, the senior general whom the conqueror inherited from his father. The presentation of Parmenio as a foil to Alexander with Alexander always coming out as the bolder and wiser, as handed down by the Alexander historians, stands in sharp contrast with Polybius’ view that “only a share of the credit for the Macedonian conquest belongs to Alexander” (294). He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives. And while Alexander besieged Tyre he remained in Syria to keep the coast clear and the supply lines open. ⓘ Parmenio Adams was a businessman and politician from New York. Since the evidence demands, it, Alexander's name must be freed of an unjust charge, and yet it is difficult to believe that Alexander, had he wished, could not have persuaded the army to different action. This quote relates to the effect Alexander’s actions had on his campaign. Book XVII Ch. Parmenio -onis). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Steven English in his “The Sieges of Alexander the Great” draws the picture of an all-powerful Parmenion, a seasoned fighter with a thorough experience.Besides that, the key positions in the army were occupied by his relatives: sons, allies, kindred, friends, etc. Callisthenes’ denigration of Parmenion is belied, moreover, by the continued reliance Alexander put on him to protect the lines of communication including, especially, the posting at Ecbatana with the royal treasure. In Italia è sostenuto dal culto verso san Parmenio, ma è raro, attestato sporadicamente nel Centro-Nord. Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. The campaign against Persia, which had had a bad start, could now really begin. Search: Add your article Home Events Years 1776 1776 births Parmenio Adams. During the reign of Philip, Parmenio won a great victory over the Illyrians (356). Previous page: Olympias In 336 he was sent with Amyntas and Attalus, his son-in-law, to Asia Minor to make preparations for the conquest of Asia. Parmenio, (born c. 400 bc—died 330, Ecbatana, Media), Macedonian general usually considered the best officer in the service of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. At the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. Parmenio became Alexander’s second in command throughout the conquest of Persia and commanded the left wing of the army at the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela. His "progress" was stopped only by his force's mutiny east of … https://www.britannica.com/biography/Parmenio, Encyclopædia Iranica - Biography of Parmenio. Parmenio, (born c. 400 bc —died 330, Ecbatana, Media), Macedonian general usually considered the best officer in the service of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). During three great battles, Parmenion commanded the left wing (12,000 heavily armed Macedonians, 7,000 allies, and 5,000 mercenaries), while Alexander himself commanded the right wing, where Philotas was his right-hand man. In May 334, king Alexander joined Parmenion with reinforcements. It is likely that it was at this time that Parmenion heard that his sons, Philotas and Nicanor, had been given command of the Companions and the hypaspists respectively – to help ease his conscience over Attalus, perhaps, and certainly to ensure his support for Alexander. In midsummer 330 Alexander set out for the eastern provinces at a high speed via Rhagae (modern Rayy, near Tehrn) and the Caspian Gates, where he learned that Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, had deposed Darius. So, for example, Parmenion advised Alexander not to attack too early at the Granicus – which was actually very sensible counsel; and he urged Alexander to “steal a victory” at Gaugamela by attacking the Persians at night. According to Plutarch Philip had just captured Potidaea when he learned that Parmenion had defeated the Illyrians, that his race-horse was victorious in the Olympic Games, and that Alexander had been born. After Issus Parmenion hurried to Damascus to secure the Persian baggage train – from where he sent Barsine, the widow of Memnon, to become Alexander’s mistress. 2 While there is a robust tradition of Parmenio’s attempts to guide Alexander, this particular occasion is unique to Arrian, and it Onomastico. Along with Attalus and a force of around 10,000 men, Parmenion ‘liberated’ a number of Ionian cities, at least as far down the coast as Ephesus, before a Persian counter attack drove the Macedonians back to the Hellespont. This was another event which led to the deaths of Parmenio and Philotas. This he did at the Granicus, at Issus and at Gaugamela: a pivotal role especially in the latter two battles. Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome. 79, 80 (Loeb Classical Library) Read the other posts in this series here The Headlines Dimnus Plots To Kill Alexander Conspiracy Exposed: Philotas Implicated Philotas Found Guilty of Treachery Alexander of Lyncestis Executed Parmenion Assassinated The Story Chapter 79 Diodorus describes the death of Philotas as a 'base action' that… Παρμενίων, lat. Alexander the great was studied under the Aristotle of Stagira, who was a Greek philosopher who pioneered systematic, … Parmenion’s strategic role was to command the left wing of the army, which included the superb Thessalian cavalry. Alexander was able to adapt, such as at Gaugamela, when Parmenio needed help, or at Hydaspes, when he had to deal with Porus' war elephants. Alexander, now recognised as the greatest commander of all time, retained Parmenio as his foremost General, but employed him somewhat differently to how his father had done. Daily Diodorus Vol. Philotas, known as a friend of Alexander, tried to reconcile him to Philip after the mysterious affair of the negotiations with Pixodarus (Plut. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Alexa… L'onomastico si può festeggiare il 22 luglio in memoria di san Parmenio, diacono, martire in Persia sotto Decio. If the old general had decided to rebel, Alexander would in all probability have been finished. It is perhaps difficult to excuse Alexander for ordering the murder but to leave Parmenion alive would have been too great a risk. - Generale macedone (400-330 a. C. circa). This site is powered by CMS Made Simple. At the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 B.C. It would appear that Alexander’s excuse for having Parmenion killed was that he, along with Hegelochus (who died at Gaugamela) and Philotas had plotted against Alexander in Egypt, and that Parmenion had resumed plotting with Philotas more recently. During the campaign, Philotas, Parmenio’s son, was charged with conspiring to murder Alexander, tried, and put to death. Even if the accusations were false, Alexander felt he had to remove Parmenion when Philotas was executed, for Parmenion at Ecbatana controlled a large military force, a vast quantity of treasure and Alexander’s logistic lifeline. His last command was to remain in Ecbatana while Alexander proceeded into Bactria, guarding this time not just the supply route but also the royal treasure taken from Susa and Persepolis. Parmenion’s reputation has come down to us rather tarnished in the sources, it appears thanks to Callisthenes and probably to Aristoboulos, too. According to Plutarch Philip had just captured Potidaea when he learned that Parmenion had defeated the Illyrians, that his race-horse was victorious in the Olympic Games, and that Alexander had been born. These qualities made Alexander the more willing he was encouraged by Parmenio, so Aristobulus tells us to form an attachment to a woman of such beauty and noble lineage." Parmenion, son of Philotas, was born early in the fourth century, probably in 400BC (he is stated as being 70 years old in 330BC), and so he was already a young man when Philip was born. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. VIII. Alexander the Great 2| Sample answer Dimnus was planning a conspiracy and made many insinuations against Philotas. 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