Furthermore, one third of the reviews in our study made no reference to appraisal of the documents included, and those that did, generally ignored accounting for appraisal results in the synthesis. This may be related to Pawson and colleagues’ (2004) doubt about the utility of RCT in explaining the outcomes of complex interventions, as they state, “such trials are meaningless because the RCT design is explicitly constructed to wash out the vital explanatory ingredients” (Pawson et al., 2004, p. 22). This review synthesizes the research on organizational learning in hospitals, including contextual factors that affect it, how such learning occurs, and improvements implemented as a result. Realist review has emerged as a specific literature review approach that is concerned with explaining the outcomes of complex intervention programs. Oral presentation at Cochrane Colloquium, Melbourne, Australia. Overall, there was little uniformity and transparency regarding many methodological issues. Cochrane Reviewers, Handbook 4.2.0. 3. Where disagreements occurred, we re-examined the review and resolved the question by discussion. However, there was a divergence among reviews with respect to other search strategies, reporting of the actual search, and sophistication in database searching. Realist reviews follow most of the same standard steps as systematic reviews (Pawson et al., 2004): Pawson and colleagues (2004) stipulate that the process should be equally rigorous and transparent (i.e., auditable), where every judgment is written down. The remaining eight reviews included primarily quantitative studies in addition to other types of documents, such as documents titled research papers or conceptual papers. Greenhalgh, T , Robert, G , Bate, P , Kyriakidou, O , Macfarlane, F , Peacock, R. How to Spread Ideas: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Diffusion, Dissemination and Sustainability of Innovations in Health Service Delivery and Organisation. Reporting of Quality Assurance and Transparency Measures in the 54 Realist Reviews, Quality Assurance and On the other hand, less than half of the reviews described the selection and appraisal of documents, the data extracted from the documents, and the analysis and synthesis processes in detail. Realist review aims to answer “what works for whom in what circumstances, in what respects and how?” with respect to social intervention programs (Pawson et al., 2004, p. 3). Improving best practice for patients receiving hospital discharge letters: a realist review Katharine Weetman , Geoff Wong , Emma Scott , Eilidh MacKenzie , Stephanie Schnurr , Jeremy Dale BMJ Open Jun 2019, 9 (6) e027588; DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027588 Journal of Public Health 33(1), 147-150. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. The RAMESES publication standards indicate what should be reported in the write-up of a realist review. London, UK: Social Care Institute for Excellence. To be included in our systematic scoping review, a review had to meet all the following criteria: (a) Applies a method that is consistent with the underlying principles of a realist review, specifically focusing on how and why an intervention worked, or did not work, in particular contexts (Pawson, 2002, 2006; Pawson et al., 2004, 2005; Wong et al., 2012), (b) Refers to at least one of the five main publications describing realist review (i.e., those listed above, under item [a]), (c) Has been published between 2004 (the date of publication of Pawson and colleagues’ key text on realist review [Pawson et al., 2004]) and the date of our search, (d) Contains the description and the results of a completed review. [f] We did not assess reasons for exclusion at each stage or source of origin The results suggest consensus in the choice of electronic databases as the main method for identifying literature for a realist review. Realist review is a specific method within the realist evaluation tradition. Appendix A: Dixon-Woods, M., Booth, A., & Sutton, A. J. Crossref A systematic review [BEME guide no. Key realist review texts (Pawson, 2006; Pawson et al., 2004, 2005; Wong et al., 2013) explain that appraisal of the data should be made on relevance (whether it can contribute to theory building and/or testing) and rigor (whether it is credible and trustworthy), which was the case for only a quarter of the reviews included in our study. . Depending on the expedited review option you choose, you can receive a decision in as few as 5-days. A realist review method considers the larger context of the concepts, constructs, motivations, and underlying theory that are shaping the research articles [36]. For example, we speculate that the finding that more than nine out of ten realist reviews failed to report all nine elements of information required in the abstract (as per item 2) was because of the word limits applicable to abstracts in most scientific journals. One review did not state how many documents were included. Information that could not be dichotomized is not included in the table, but is described in the following text. Experimental evidence shows that more errors occur with a single reviewer than with two reviewers (Buscemi, Hartling, Vandermeer, Tjosvold, & Klassen, 2005). Strengths, limitations, and future research directions: a) Discuss the strengths of the review, 16. Is it published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal or been the subject of peer-review by an external body? (2016). Therefore, we conducted a review of the published examples of realist review. Similar to what Dixon-Woods and colleagues (2007) found for qualitative evidence syntheses, there is some intransparency about how the data are analyzed and synthesized in realist reviews. Details on our search strategy, data screening, extraction, synthesis, and findings are provided in our realist review publication (Flynn et al., 2018). It is based on realism as a philosophy of science, which involves identifying underlying causal mechanisms and exploring how they work under different conditions (Pawson & Tilley, 1997). Fig. The IACR journal is the Journal of Critical Realism (JCR). Complying with the standard should overcome idiosyncratic reporting of how the documents are identified. Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic modelling [Project record], Intervention now to eliminate repeat unintended pregnancy in teenagers (INTERUPT): A systematic review of intervention effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, qualitative and realist synthesis of implementation factors and user engagement, Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: A realist review protocol, Understanding success and failure in multimorbidity: Protocol for using realist synthesis to identify how social learning and workplace practices can be optimised, Received 29 April 2016 | Accepted 11 June 2016 | Published 8 July 2016, Copyright © 2016 Journal of Research Practice and the authors, http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/538/449, http://abstracts.cochrane.org/2005-melbourne/inter-reviewer-agreement-analysis-degree-which-agreement-occurs-when-using-tools, http://abstracts.cochrane.org/2014-hyderabad/risk-bias-are-judgements-consistent-between-reviews, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gill_Harvey/publication/228855827_Realist_synthesis_an_introduction/links/0fcfd507f0b7cbb2ce000000.pdf, http://abstracts.cochrane.org/2009-singapore/epidemiology-and-quality-systematic-reviews-health-professional-behaviour-change, Draw conclusions and make recommendations, Collate, summarize, and report the results. Of all the 19 publication reporting items, the one about the searching process is the most detailed (Item 8, see Wong et al., 2013). Dixon, E., Hameed, M., Sutherland, F., Cook, D. J., & Doig, C. (2005). Can health insurance improve access to quality care for the Indian poor? It will not tell policy-makers or managers whether something works or not, but will provide the policy and practice community with the kind of rich, detailed and highly practical understanding of complex social interventions which is likely to be of much more use to them when planning and implementing programmes at a national, regional or local level. Transparency Measures, Abstract identified the study as a realist review or realist synthesis, 2 reviews had no abstract or executive summary, Process of selecting documents was done by two or more persons independently, 14 (28%) reviews partially The politics of evidence and methodology: Lessons from the EPPI-Centre. View or download all the content the society has access to. Braga, L. H., Pemberton, L., DeMaria, J., & Lorenzo, A. J. This is in contrast to a systematic review, which “attempts to collate all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question” (Higgins & Green, 2011). International Journal of Medical Informatics, Realist review - a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions, Payment by Results in the UK: Progress to date and future directions for evaluation. The results show that realist reviews are by and large not systematic reviews. A Theory-Driven Systematic Review Working Paper No. RAMESES publication standards: Realist syntheses. Deriving from Aristotle’s tutelage at the feet of the great idealist Plato, realism has an important influence on education. Five reviews described themselves as a systematic review in their title (although three of these did not follow the basic procedures required for systematic reviews). a realist review does not provide concrete and absolute answers and, as a result, the possibility for additional contributions to each theory may remain, as findings from a realist review are often provisional [48]. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Family-based interventions to increase physical activity in children: A meta-analysis and realist synthesis protocol, Embedding mental health interventions in early childhood education systems for at-risk pre-schoolers: An evidence to policy realist review, Research protocol: A realist synthesis of cross-border patient mobility from low-income and middle-income countries, Protocol: Developing a conceptual framework of patient mediated knowledge translation, systematic review using a realist approach, Protocol: The effectiveness in micro-insurance in helping small-holders manage weather-related risks, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, Effective health care for older people resident in care homes: The optimal study protocol for realist review, The optimal study: Describing the key components of optimal health care delivery to UK care home residents: A research protocol, Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 15(9), 681-686, Functionality and feedback: A protocol for a realist synthesis of the collation, interpretation and utilisation of PROMs data to improve patient care, The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of shared care: Protocol for a realist review, Understanding the relationship between the perceived characteristics of clinical practice guidelines and their uptake: Protocol for a realist review, A realist synthesis of the effect of social accountability interventions on health service providers' and policymakers' responsiveness, Assessing the benefits of participatory research: A rationale for a realist review, Protocol for an HTA report: Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? 19 ] note that four of the results of this article with your and... 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